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Principles of a good diet

In Poland, every fifth person is obese and every third is overweight. Obesity develops for years. It does not hurt, but bothers physically and mentally. It can also lead to health problems (e.g. diabetes, hypertension, circulatory disorders). More than half of ladies dissatisfied with their weight attempt to slim down almost all the time, but it usually ends with the yo-yo effect. Obese people have a greater appetite, as fatty tissue produces hormones that cause a craving. It does not mean that all attempts are doomed to failure. However, before we make a decision to go on a diet, it needs to be stated clearly: neither pills, nor preparations will do it for us. Losing weight effectively has nothing to do with miraculous diets. Losing weight only brings a dream effect if we permanently change our lifestyle and dietary habits.

 

1. Breakfast constitutes an energy base for the whole day; thus; it should contain wholegrain cereal products. Complex carbohydrates contained in them ensure a long-lasting feeling of satiety. Thus, it is worth eating e.g. wholemeal bread, crispy rye bread, muesli (without sugar, chocolate or a sweet glaze) and cereal flakes (oat flakes are of the greatest nutritional value, but they are also more calorific than rye and barley ones). Also, a portion of valuable proteins is important in the breakfast set. It will be ensured by e.g. lean cured meat, cheese (especially white one), fish and eggs. Vegetables and fruits should always accompany the meal. Skimmed milk, green tea and water, in turn, are good for drinking. Note: In people who eat nothing for an hour since they wake up, the metabolic rate drops by 30%.


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2. Each day, our organism loses at least 2.6 l of water (kidneys – 1.5 l and skin – 0.5 l need the most). Its replenishment is essential for normal vital functions. It also favours slimming down because it helps to get rid of toxic substances and improves metabolism. However, in order to make water play its role optimally, it should be drunk in small portions with small sips. A single large portion stretches the stomach, causing a feeling of hunger and increased appetite. According to nutrition specialists the best type is natural spring water (low- or medium-mineralised), but after a physical effort – sparkling one (it facilitates the removal of toxins). Note: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends drinking 2.2 l of fluids per day for women and 2.9 l for men.




3. Fruit contain many simple sugars that are easily absorbed by the organism (fructose). For this reason, it is better not to overdo with them. This applies particularly to the most calorific ones, such as avocado,

bananas or grapes. Vegetables have far less calories than fruit. Numbers speak for themselves: bananas – 96 kcal, tomatoes – 15

kcal; apples – 47 kcal, cucumbers – 14 kcal; grapefruits – 36 kcal, lettuce – 14 kcal (data for 100 g of products). While losing weight, it is still worth following a healthy principle of: Vegetables and fruit or juice 5 times a day. Especially vegetable juices (e.g. tomato, carrot or beet ones) are worth recommending. Note: To slim down in a healthy and effective manner, one should lose no more than 0.5–1 kg per week.


4. A good diet requires counting calories. It is enough to become aware of how different calorific values similar products have (e.g. sausages – 342 kcal, turkey ham – 84 kcal; eel – 278 kcal, cod – 78 kcal; milk 3.2% of fat – 64 kcal, and milk 0.5% of fat – 40 kcal). Calories should be spread out over several meals. Eating only one meal during the day is a huge error. It entails the absorption of too many calories at once. The organism is unable to metabolise them, and so they accumulate in the fatty tissue. It is much better to be satiated and lose weight. However, it is necessary to reduce animal fats, sugar, salt and alcohol, and eat low-calorie products containing much fibre (e.g. vegetables, wholegrain bread, coarse-grained groats). Note: The calorific value of meals while on a 1200 kcal diet: breakfast – 300 kcal; lunch – 180 kcal; dinner – 420 kcal; tea – 120 kcal; supper – 180 kcal.

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